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中国初级卫生保健:2024,38(5):82-86
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2014、2019年青岛市中小学生体质健康状况比较*
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中文摘要: 摘 要:目的:了解青岛市中小学生体质健康状况和发展动态,为制定体质健康提升策略提供参考。方法:利用2014 年和2019年全国学生体质健康调研中青岛市的数据,对7~17岁中小学生的身体形态、功能和素质指标进行比较分析。结 果:与2014年相比,2019年青岛市7~17岁男女生身高分别平均增长0.2 cm、0.3 cm,男生体重平均下降0.8 kg,女生体重平 均增长0.8 kg。身体功能方面,与2014年相比,2019年男女生肺活量分别平均增长98.8 mL、120.6 mL,多数年龄组增长。身 体素质方面,与2014年相比,2019年男女生50 m跑用时分别平均减慢0.4 s、0.5 s,多数年龄组减慢;男女生50 m×8往返跑 用时平均减慢4.5 s,男生1 000 m跑用时平均减慢3.1 s,女生800 m跑用时平均减慢5.4 s,其中男生1 000 m和女生800 m跑 用时均为13~14岁增快,男生16~17岁、女生15~17岁减慢。与2014年相比,2019年男女生立定跳远成绩分别平均下降12.7 cm、 7.2 cm,多数年龄组下降;男生侧身引体成绩平均下降2.4个,引体向上平均下降0.5个,其中7岁、10~11岁男生侧身引体, 16~17岁男生引体向上成绩下降;女生仰卧起坐成绩平均下降2.3个,多数年龄组成绩下降。与2014年相比,2019年男女生 坐位体前屈成绩分别平均增长0.9 cm、1.5 cm,其中9岁、13~14岁男生,10~15岁女生出现增长。结论:青岛市中小学生身 体形态变化不大,身体功能指标方面有所提升,身体素质指标方面,除柔韧素质外,反应速度、耐力、下肢爆发力、肌力的 运动素质指标均出现不同程度的下滑。
Abstract:Abstract:OBJECTIVE To understand the physical health status and dynamic among primary and secondary school students in Qingdao,and to provide reference for the strategy formulation. METHODS The data of Qingdao in national student physical fitness and health survey in 2014 and 2019 were used to analyze the differences of indicators of physical shape,physical function and physical quality among primary and secondary school students aged 7~17. RESULTS Compared with 2014,the height of boys and girls aged 7~17 in Qingdao increased by 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm on average in 2019. The average weight of boys decreased by 0.8 kg, while girls increased by 0.8 kg. For physical function indicators,the average vital capacity of boys and girls increased by 98.8mL and 120.6mL respectively,with increases in most age groups. For physical quality indicators,it took an extra 0.4 s for boys and 0.5 s for girls to finish a 50 m distance running and the differences in most age groups were statistically significant. In 50 m×8 running,boys and girls were both 4.5 s slower. Boys were 3.1 s slower in 1 000 m running and girls were 5.4 s slower in 800 m running. In the endurance running,students aged 13~14 were faster,while boys aged 16~17 and girls aged 15~17 were slower, and the differences were statistically significant. The average standing long jump distance of boys and girls decreased by 12.7 cm and 7.2 cm respectively,with decreases in most age groups. Among boys,the number of side pull-ups and pull-ups decreased by 2.4 and 0.5 respectively and the differences were statistically significant in those aged 7,10~11 and 16~17. Among girls,the number of sit-ups decreased by 2.3 on average, with decreases in most age groups. For seated forward flexion, the average increase of boys and girls was 0.9 cm and 1.5 cm respectively. The differences were statistically significant in boys aged 13~14 and girls aged 10~15. CONCLUSION The physical morphology of primary and secondary school students doesn’t change significantly and their physical function has shown an improvement. In terms of physical quality,except for flexibility,the indicators regarding to speed,endurance,lower limb explosiveness and muscle strength have shown varying degrees of decline.
文章编号:3202410021     中图分类号:R179    文献标志码:
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